April, 1888. Ornithologist and Oologist 13: 49-51. Continues: November 1888, 13: 169-172; and November 1889, 14: 163-165.
Notes on Nebraska Birds.
By W. Edgar Taylor and A. H. Van Vleet. Peru, Nebraska.
With this number of the O. & O. we begin a series of articles, "Notes on Nebraska Birds."
The only published records made on the birds of Nebraska are found in "Birds of North America," Vol. I, 1856, by Baird, Cassin and Lawrence; also in Annual Report of United States Entomological Commission, 1877, is an article by Dr. Samuel Aughey, entitled, "Aughey on Locust Feeding Birds." These records are very unsatisfactory and incomplete, as well as somewhat out of date, being classified under the old nomenclature. In the articles now published, we have endeavored, by freely using information from every source, to bring up the past records, as well as add additional notes made by ourselves or reliable parties. When a species is well known and generally distributed, no mention is made of the various references, but when the species is thought to be rare, or only mentioned by one or two, the authorities are quoted.
Acknowledgements are due the Normal Science Society for the use of their records and collections; also Dr. L. E. Hicks, State University, for special favors, and to others whose names are given in the proper places.
The numbers in parentheses refer to corresponding numbers and names in the check list of the American Ornithological Union, 1886.
We should be pleased to receive information of any kind and from any source, with reference to Nebraska birds, from those reading these articles.
3. Colymbus auritus (Linn). Horned Grebe. Not reported as found in Nebraska, but as it is a widely distributed species and is found in all surrounding territory, doubtless exists in the State. Rare and perhaps migratory.
4. C. nigricollis californicus (Heerm.) American Eared Grebe. Rather abundant, especially on the Platte and Missouri. (Aughey). Collected on Snake River and at Ft. Berthold. (Baird). Arrive in May and September. May breed in Western Nebraska.
6. Podilymbus podiceps (Linn). Pied-billed Grebe. This bird seems to be rare in Nebraska. It is not reported by either Aughey or Baird, and is scarcely seen by any one. It is found in Iowa, breeds in Kansas, where Goss mentions it as abundant in migration. McChesney says "it is common in all the small lakes of Dakota, and breeds in the tall grass." Arrives in Kansas last of April to the first of May; in Dakota about May first and leaves the last of October.
7. Urinator imber (Gunn). Loon. Common early in the spring for about a month. Arrive about the time the ice breaks on the streams, usually by the first of April. Not seen again till September or October.
36. Stercorarius pomarinus (Temm). Pomarine Jæger. Dr. Aughey mentions seeing this bird in Dakota County in May, 1869, also in May 1873. Very rare, at present, if found within the State.
47. Larus marinus (Linn). Great Black-backed Gull. Dr. Aughey mentions one specimen shot in the Missouri in May, 1871.
51. L. argentatus smithsonianus (Coues). American Herring Gull. Common during spring migration. Arrive about the first of May, and sometimes stay until first of July.
54. L. delawarensis (Ord). Ring-billed Gull. Common from the first of May till June and July. Seen in flocks. Baird mentions two specimens as collected on the Laramie, July 23, 1857.
59. L. franklinii (Sw. & Rich). Franklin's Gull. Very abundant during migrations. Arrive the first of April, some remaining as late as July. Return in September and October. The records of the Normal Science Society show this gull to be most plentiful in May. Baird mentions one specimen collected on the Platte in 1856, as late as July 14.
The gulls are very abundant during wet springs and falls; high waters. The people foretell a rise in larger streams by the large number of gulls flying up stream in order to collect insects from the fresh waves. Franklin's Gull and the Ring-billed Gull are sometimes seen in small flocks. Parties making collections in the state claim that other species of Gull are found, but we have obtained no authentic record of the species. Also Aughey speaks of some members of this family which he failed to identify. One specimen in the State Normal Museum has not been fully identified.
69. Sterna forsteri (Nutt). Forster's Tern. A few during migration. Arrive about the first of May.
70. S. hirundo (Linn). Common Tern. Not common. Arrive about the first of May.
71. S. paradisŒa (Brunn). Arctic Tern. Dr. Aughey mentions seeing a few of these Terns in Dixon County in May 1866.
74. S. antillarum (Less). Least Tern. Abundant in June, July and August. Breeding in the State. Arrive about the first of May.
77. Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis (Gmel.) Black Tern. Quite common during migrations. Some few breed in the State. Arrive about the first of May and October.
120. Phalacrocorax dilophus (Sw. & Rich). Double-crested Cormorant. Not on record as a Nebraska bird, but found in Kansas, Iowa and Dakota. Breeds in Dakota. Perhaps migratory in Nebraska, passing through in April and November.
125. Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (Gmel.) American White Pelican. Seen on the Platte, Missouri and other streams in large flocks during migrations. Mr. George Coleman, October 20, 1886, counted forty in one flock on the Missouri. Arrive in April, May, and in October and November. Dr. Aughey says: "This and other species exist in the State."
129. Merganser americanus (Cass). American Merganser. Not common. Arrives about the last of April or first of May. Hunters claim that this duck remains on the Missouri all summer.
130. M. serrator (Linn). Red-breasted Merganser. Not seen except during the winter. Not common.
131. Lophodytes cucullatus (Linn). Hooded Merganser. Somewhat common in winter in parts of the State. A few spend the summer in Nebraska.
132. Anas boschas (Linn). Mallard. Very abundant during migrations. Not an uncommon resident. More abundant at some seasons than others.
133. A. obscura (Gmel). Black Duck. Sometimes common during migration. Arrive the last of March or first of April.
135. A. strepera (Linn). Gadwall. Sometimes common during migration. As it breeds in Kansas and Dakota, it doubtless breeds in Nebraska.
137. A. americana (Gmel.) Baldpate. Common in migration. Come the last of March or first of April, and sometimes stay as late as June.
139. A. carolinensis (Gmel.) Green-winged Teal. Abundant during migration. Arrive the first of April and stay till June. Return about the first of September, and stay till the last of December.
140. A. discors (Linn). Blue-winged Teal. Very plentiful during migration, from the first of May till June, and in the fall. A few breed in the State. Mr. C.J. Pierson, in the records of the Normal Science Society, says: "This bird when I came upon it, did not fly, but crept very close along the opposite side of the river. Often it would hide under cover of a log or brush that projected into the water."
141. A. cyanoptera (Viell). Cinnamon Teal. This bird is not on record as a Nebraska bird, neither has it come under my observation. Several parties claim that, at times, it is plentiful in central and western Nebraska. Goss says: "Not uncommon in middle and western Kansas."
142. Spatula clypeata (Linn). Shoveller. Sometimes common on the Missouri during spring and fall migrations. Somewhat rare in other parts of the State. Arrive about the first of April, and sometimes stay till June or July, some few probably breeding in this State.
143. Dafila acuta (Linn). Pintail. Very plentiful on the Missouri during migrations, and somewhat common over the State. Arrive in March and first of April; leave about the first of May.
144. Aix sponsa (Linn). Wood Duck. A very common summer resident; perhaps the most plentiful duck on the Missouri. Arrive the first of April and stay till September or October.
146. Aythya americana (Eyt). Redhead. Numerous from the first of April, till sometimes the first of June. Again seen in October and November.
147. A. vallisneria (Will). Canvas-back. Reported by Mr. E.P. Boggs as "very plentiful in Platte county," and by Dr. Aughey as "rather frequently seen in Nebraska." Mr. Allen Prime mounted one November, '87, captured on the Missouri, where they are common during migrations.
148. A. marilla nearctica (Stejn). American Scaup Duck. Not known to have been found in Nebraska, but is found in Kansas and Dakota, and probably exists in the State as a rare species.
149. A. affinis (Eyt). Lesser Scaup Duck. Very plentiful during spring migration. Arrive from the first to the last of April.
150. A. collaris (Donov). Ring-necked Duck. This duck is not on record as found in the State, but is given a place from its well-known distribution, and well known habitat in adjoining states.
151. Glacionetta clangula americana (Bonap). American Golden-eye. Common from the first of April till as late as the middle of May. Seldom seen in the fall.
153. Charitonetta albeola (Linn). Buffle-head. Quite common during migration.
167. Erismatura rubida (Wills). Ruddy Duck. Given by Aughey as quite common on the Missouri and its tributaries. Baird mentions three specimens; one collected on White River in May, and two on the Platte in October.
——Chen caerulescens (Linn). Blue Goose. This bird has been dropped from the A.O.U. Check List, but restored in Ridgway's new manual. Found on the Missouri river. Arrived about the first of October, and said to leave about the middle of December; some few staying all winter.
(169) C. hyperborea (Pall). Lesser Snow Goose. Very abundant in rivers during migrations, and flies over in large numbers. Arrive from the first of March till the first of April; also from the first till the last of October.
(171a) Anser albifrons (Hartl). American White-fronted Goose. Quite common during spring migration. Arrive about the first of March.
(172) Branta canadensis (Linn). Canada Goose. Somewhat common during migrations, from the first till the middle of May; also from the first till about the last of October, Aughey says, "Very abundant in Nebraska and occasionally breeds here after the great mass has passed north in April, I have sometimes, later in the season, seen young ones along the Missouri." Parties frequenting the Missouri claim to have seen their eggs floating down this river in late spring or early summer. This goose is mentioned as migratory at Fort Sisseton, Dakota, by McChesney, and also in Kansas by Colonel Goss. We have not observed this bird as a summer resident, and think perhaps, the above statements are erroneous.
(172a) B. canadensis hutchinsii (Sw. & Rich). Hutchin's Goose. Probably may be found within the state, but, has not been distinguished from B. canadensis.
(180) Olor columbianus (Ord). Whistling Swan. Mentioned in the A.O.U. Check List as inhabiting, "The whole of North America, breeding far north." We have no positive evidence of it as a Nebraska bird.
(181) O. buccinnator (Rich). Trumpeter Swan. A few are found all over the state in the spring from the first of April till May, and in the fall from September till October.
(190) Botaurus lentiginosus (Montag). American Bittern. Common summer resident in different parts of the state. Found here from the first of April till the middle of October. Generally found along the shallow waters of a bog, or reedy marshes in some open territory near the rivers. Most abundant from the middle till the last of April. Mr. C.J. Pierson, a former student of the Normal, states that a specimen killed April 21st '85, contained in its stomach two ground mice, and a snake six inches long. Mr. VanVleet says, "The latter part of October, 1884, I observed a Bittern catch its breakfast of fish from a small stream in Furnas county. I first saw the bird as it emerged from the weeds and grass that overhung the stream. It moved very slowly and silently, raising its foot clear of the water at every step, and putting it down so carefully that it caused hardly a ripple. Near the middle of the stream it stopped, and extended its neck so slowly it could scarcely be seen move. This it did till its beak almost touched the water; when with rapidity of lightning, it darted its head into the water and seized a fish about two inches long. It immediately returned to its hiding place, to repeat the same operation. This it did many times never failing to secure a fish."
(194) Ardea herodias Linn. Great Blue Heron. Occurs during spring and fall migrations. Quite likely breeds in the state. Residents claim that they arrive on the Missouri in numbers when the waters dry up, about the first of July, to catch the small fish. The dates given by Aughey partly confirm this statement. Said by some to nest on the prairies adjoining the river bluffs.
(196) A. egretta Gmel. American Egret. Aughey mentions seeing a single specimen on the Nemaha in Richardson county, extreme south-east corner of the state, but this is not confirmed by the dates given by Colonel Goss for Kansas, namely: "Arrives from the south in July and August; returns in September."
(197) A. candidissina Gmel. Snowy Heron. Aughey mentions seeing this bird twice.
(201) A. virescens Linn. Green Heron. Does not seem to be abundant. June 2, 1888, found a nest of this bird. Nest in the top of a dogwood; not less than twelve feet from the ground; wholly and loosely constructed of willow twigs. Eggs three in the nest and one on the ground broken, probably owing to the looseness of the nest; color between a pale blue and a glaucous green, very pale; form elliptical fusiform; the small end being hardly distinguishable from the larger end. Sizes of the egg, 42 x 29m; 40 x 29m.
(202) Nycticorax nycticorax naevius (Bodd). Black-crowned Night Heron. Seem to be common on the streams during migrations and have seen them in June. In a private letter, Mr. A.J. Arnold, of Columbus, who has a collection of birds, says, "on the 25th of April ('88), a friend gave me a Night Heron, but I have seen four of these birds within the last five years." Mr. LeRoy Miller, a former student of the Normal, reports this bird in Webster county, where it is said to breed. Said to look backward at its pursuers when on its flight.
(204) Grus Americana (Linn). Whooping Crane. Occasionally seen during spring and fall migrations.
(205) G. canadensis (Linn). Little Brown Crane. I have not seen this bird in Nebraska, but Ridgway gives it as, "Migrating south through western United States, east of the Rocky Mountains to Mexico."
(206) G. mexicana (Mull). Sandhill Crane. Common during spring and fall migrations, and mentioned by Aughey as collected in August, July, June and September.
(208) Rallus elegans Aud. King Rail. Aughey mentions seeing this bird in southern Nebraska. His record dates from May till October. Probably breeds in the state.
(212) R. virginianus Linn. Virginia Rail. Common during the migrations and probably sometimes breeds in the state.
(214) Porzana carolina (Linn). Sora. Aughey mentions seeing this bird once in state, near Dakota City, September, 1869. We have not observed it, but as it is found and breeds in Kansas, Iowa and Dakota, probably exists in the state.
(216) P. jamaicensis (Gmel). Black Rail. Aughey mentions seeing two in Richardson county in September 1873.
(219) Gallinula galeata (Licht). Florida Gallinule. One mentioned by Aughey as sent from Beatrice in September 1872.
(221) Fulica americana Gmel. American Coot. Common summer resident and abundant during migrations. Arrives about the first of April. One kept in a box in our laboratory refused to fight when an opportunity was given. Frequently when discovered they make no effort to escape till caught, or else content themselves by simply hiding the head till picked up. Mr. T.A. Leger, a student of the Normal, speaks of capturing this bird in Seward county, and taming it. It delighted in catching, and eating, young chickens which approached too near the cage. Mr. G.A. Coleman, a former student of the Normal, in speaking of a trip to Lehigh's Lake, about three miles from the Missouri, says, "As we looked up the lake, we could see that the water was literally covered with American Coots. On top of a number of these houses, (muskrat's), coots were sitting. We were much engrossed in studying their actions, as they would sit for a few minutes perfectly still, and then suddenly slide off into the water, diving as they did so, remaining under for a minute or more, with nothing visible except the tips of their tails. Then they would as suddenly rise, and with a splutter and splash be off again. Very graceful are they as they glide smoothly along, turning their heads as they glide smoothly along, turning their heads from side to side, their white bills flashing in the sun light in strong contrast to their glossy blue coats. They arrive here the last of March and nest in April. Though I have often found their nests, I have as yet been unable to secure their eggs. The nests are built in the tall weeds and rushes which grow in shallow muddy places in ponds and sloughs on top of the broken down old growths that form a sort of platform just above the water. It is a deep hollow nest composed of bitten-off stems of weeds and rushes."
(224) Phalaropus tricolor (Vieill). Wilson's Phalarope. Has been found in Nebraska from the last of April till sometime in September. Probably breeds in the state.
(225) Recurvirostra americana Gmel. American Avocet. Found over the state in July, August and September. This bird will probably be found in the state as early as the first of May, and perhaps breeds sparingly, as it is known to breed in Kansas and Dakota.
(228) Philohela minor (Gmel). American Woodcock. Somewhat common during migrations. Given by Aughey as breeding in the state. Has been found from July to September or October, but a careful search throughout the state would probably show its presence much earlier in the spring.
(230) Gallinago delicata (Ord). Wilson's Snipe. Common during migrations. Has been killed as early as April 13th, and Aughey records it for May, June, August, September and October. Mr. C.J. Pierson, a former student of the Normal, says, "When flushed these birds fly in a zigzag course which renders shooting them very difficult. The hunter may stand for many minutes within a few yards of them and not see them, so nearly are they the color of the earth and weeds. They live in marshy places."
(231) Macrorhamphus griseus (Gmel). Dowitcher. Mentioned by Aughey as "abundant during its migrations," who records specimens examined in August, September and October.
(232) M. scolopaceous (Say). Long-billed Dowitcher. Baird mentions this bird as taken near Omaha. This probably is the species mentioned by Aughey as M. griseus.
(234) Tringa canutus Linn. Knot. Occasionally seen in Nebraska. (Aughey).
(239) T. maculata (Vieill). Pectoral Sandpiper. Somewhat common during migration. Have been in April, May and June.
(240) T. fuscicollis Vieill. White-rumped Sandpiper. I have occasionally seen this bird in Nebraska. (Aughey).
(241) T. bairdii (Coues). Baird's Sandpiper. Common during migrations. Probably arrive about the first of April.
(242) T. minutilla Vieill. Least Sandpiper. Abundant during migrations. Arrives in April, September and October. Baird mentions two specimens collected August 20th.
(246) Ereunetes pusillus Linn. Semipalmated Sandpiper. Found in the state during migrations. Arrives about the first of May. Aughey and Baird, each mention seeing specimens in July.
(249) Limosa fedoa (Linn). Marbled Godwit. Common and said to breed in the state. Has been found from the first of May till the last of September. Probably these birds may be found within the state after and before the time given.
(251) L. haemastica (Linn). Hudsonian Godwit. Not on record as a Nebraska bird, but is given as a rare migrant in Kansas, Iowa and Dakota. Probably occasionally may be found within the state in the month of May.
(254) Totanus melanoleucus (Gmel). Greater Yellow-legs. Very common during migrations. Arrives in April, May and June. Again found within the state on return migration during September and October. Aughey mentions one specimen as collected in August.
(255) T. flavipes (Gmel). Yellow-legs. Abundant during migrations. Arrives in April, May and June. Also found within state in September and October.
(256) T. solitarius (Wils). Solitary Sandpiper. Quite common during migrations and many remaining during the summer and breeding. Probably arrive as early as the first of April. The stomach of a specimen examined May 5th, contained worms and small insects.
(258) Symphemia semipalmata (Gmel). Willet. Not mentioned as a Nebraska bird, but breeds in Dakota, is found in Iowa, and Colonel Goss says, "probably breed in western part of Kansas." Probably a careful search would not only determine the species as a Nebraska bird, but find it breeding within the state.
(261) Bartramia longicauda (Bechst). Bartramian Sandpiper. Exceedingly abundant during migrations, and many breeding within the state. Arrives about the first of May and September.
(262) Tryngites subruficollis (Vieill). Buff-breasted Sandpiper. Somewhat rare in Nebraska. Probably found in May and September.
(263) Actitis macularia (Linn). Spotted Sandpiper. Common during migrations. Breeds in the state. Arrives about the first of May and September.
(264) Numenius longirostris Wils. Long-billed Curlew. An occasional summer resident and common during migrations. Arrives about the middle of April or first of May, and September. Formerly much more abundant to eastern Nebraska than at present.
(265) N. Hudsonicus Lath. Hudsonian Curlew. "Rare in Nebraska; have seen it but twice and obtained no specimens." (Aughey). This bird has not come under our observation.
(266) N. borealis (Forst). Eskimo Curlew. Seen during migrations. Arrives about the middle of April or first of May, and October.
(270) Charadrius squatarola (Linn). Black-bellied Plover. Said to have been found sparingly during migrations, appearing in greater abundance during fall migration rather than in the spring. I have not discovered it.
(272) C. dominicus Mull. American Golden Plover. Abundant during migrations. Arrives in April, May, September and October.
(273) Aegialitis vocifera (Linn). Killdeer. Abundant from the first of March till the last of September. The following are taken from the notes of the Normal Science Society as recorded by Mr. C.P. Pierson, "The Killdeer is very cunning in its manner of defending its young. I once came upon a pair with two young birds, when both endeavored to entice me away, by pretending they were crippled. When I picked up one of the young and it uttered a pitiful cry, the parents redoubled their efforts, coming very near to me, alighting on the ground, spreading their wings and tails, and fluttering in a seemingly helpless manner. They would walk off dragging one leg or wing. After putting down the young bird the old ones followed for considerable distance, frequently alighting to go through their deceptions. Most of the time they uttered a pitiful scream."
(274) A. semipalmata Bonap. Semipalmated Plover. Not uncommon during spring and fall migrations. Found within the state in May and September. Aughey records two specimens as examined in June, 1875.
(277) A. melodia circumcincta Ridgw. Belted Piping Plover. Common in Nebraska and breeds here (Aughey). The A.O.U. Check List gives this bird for "Missouri river region," but we have failed to observe it.
(281) A. montana (Towns). Mountain Plover. Reported as abundant in western Nebraska. No record of the bird in the eastern part of the state. Arrives in May and September, and frequently remains and breeds.
289. Colinus virginianus (Linn.). Bobwhite. Resident; abundant. Begin laying the last of April. Nest in a depression on the ground, generally in the grass on the prairie, the grass at the edge of thickets being a favorite place, and also in the grain fields. Nests usually composed of grasses, arched over, with entrance at the side, but often found in the fields after the grain is cut, composed almost wholly of the stubble. A nest examined May 19, 1889, was composed of grass, arched over, with entrance at the side, and contained 16 eggs, cream white; in shape conical; average size, 1.61 x .96. The bobwhite was formerly more abundant in Eastern Nebraska than it is now. Hunters keep its number reduced, and during severe winters a great many perish.
297. Dendragapus obscurus (Say.). Dusky Grouse. Collected in Black Hills and at Laramie Peak, Nebraska, in August. (Baird). Probably breeds in the state.
300. Bonasa umbellus (Linn.). Ruffed Grouse. Resident in Eastern Nebraska; not common. In the early settlement of the state it was quite common in the timber along the Missouri River, but has almost disappeared. Mr. Phelps, of Peru, reports seeing a number in the timber near Peru, during the fall of 1888, and Mr. Gillilan saw a pair of them in the same timber in January, 1888.
305. Tympanuchus americanus (Reich.). Prairie Hen. Resident; common in eastern and middle Nebraska. Begin laying the last of April. Its favorite place of nesting is in the thick grass on the prairie. The nest consists of a hollow scratched in the soil, sparingly lined with grass and feathers. In the early settlement of the state the Prairie Hen was very abundant, but the breaking up of the prairie has destroyed its natural nesting place; the burning of the grass in the spring destroyed countless numbers of eggs; and being a favorite game for hunters its number has been greatly reduced. It seems likely that it will soon be exterminated in the eastern part of the state.
307. Tympanuchus pallidicinctus (Ridgw.). Lesser Prairie Hen. Not on record as a Nebraska bird, but is given by Col. Goss as resident in Southern Kansas; rare. Is found in Dakota (McChesney), and probably occurs in the state.
308. Pediœcetes phasianellus campestris (Ridgw.). Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse. Resident in Western Nebraska; rare.
309. Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonap.). Sage Grouse. Resident in Western Nebraska; becoming rare. (Aughey).
310. Meleagris gallopavo (Linn.). Wild Turkey. In the early settlement of the state, an abundant resident, but becoming rare.
315. Ectopistes migratorius (Linn.). Passenger Pigeon. Given by Aughey as abundant during some years.
316. Zenaidura macroura (Linn.). Mourning Dove. Summer resident; very abundant; arrive the last of March; begin laying the last of April. Nest usually placed in the forks of trees or the low branches, loosely constructed of twigs, and lined with vines, grass, or leaves. Nest also on the ground. Eggs, two; white; elliptical to ovate; size, 1.12 x .90.
325. Cathartes aura (Linn.). Turkey Vulture. Summer resident; common. Sometimes seen during the winter.
327. Elanoides forficatus (Linn.). Swallow-tailed Kite. Aughey says, "Sparingly represented all over the state. In Dixon Co., a pair nested for at least four years in succession, on a cottonwood on Badger Creek."
329. Ictinia mississippiensis (Wils.). Mississippi Kite. Not on record as a Nebraska bird, but is found in Iowa and breeds in Kansas. May occasionally occur in the state.
331. Circus hudsonius (Linn.). Marsh Hawk. Resident; common in all parts of the state.
332. Accipiter velox (Wils.). Sharp-shinned Hawk. Common winter sojourner in Southern Nebraska. Collected at Black Hills and Bridger's Pass, Nebraska, in August (Baird), and probably breeds in the northern part of the state.
333. Accipiter cooperi (Bonap.). Cooper's Hawk. Common summer resident. Begin laying the first of May. A nest examined May 16, 1888 was in the fork of a hickory tree, about fifty feet from the ground, and composed of oak sticks and twigs, lined with oak and hickory bark. The nest contained three eggs, in color pale bluish-white, showing blotches of gray blue on closer examination; size, 1.86 x 1.42; in form, short elliptical ovate.
334. Accipiter atricapillus (Wils.). American Goshawk. This bird has not been observed by us in Nebraska, but there is one specimen from Cumings Co., in the State University collection, and Aughey mentions dissecting one in August, on the borders of Dixon and Cedar counties.
337. Buteo borealis (Gmel.). Red-tailed Hawk. Resident; common.
337a. Buteo borealis kriderii (Hoopes.). Krider's Hawk. Not on record as a Nebraska bird, but is found in Iowa and Kansas; breeds in Dakota, and probably occurs in the state.
337b. Buteo borealis calurus (Cass.). Western Red-tail. Colonel Goss says, "not an uncommon winter sojourner in Kansas." Two specimens were collected at North Platte, (Baird), in August, 1857.
338. Buteo harlani (Aud.). Harlan's Hawk. Do not find this bird mentioned in any report on Nebraska birds. Two specimens were collected near Peru, in April, 1886. Probably a rare winter visitant.
339. Buteo lineatus (Gmel.). Red-shouldered Hawk. Resident; quite common in Eastern Nebraska.
342. Buteo swainsoni (Bonap.). Swainson's Hawk. Resident. Aughey says, "rather abundant in the state in vicinity of streams of water where timber exists." Baird mentions collecting it on Heart river, Little Missouri and Loup Fork of the Platte.
343. Buteo latissimus (Wils.). Broad-winged Hawk. Have seen but one specimen of it, and no mention is made of it in Nebraska reports. A specimen killed near Peru was brought to the laboratory of the State Normal in the fall of 1888.
347a. Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis (Gmel.). American Rough-legged Hawk. Rare in Southern Nebraska, (Aughey). Aughey mentions examining one from Beatrice, in September, 1873. There is a specimen in the State University collection from West Point.
348. Archibuteo ferrugineus (Licht.). Ferruginous Rough-leg. Resident. Have not seen it in Eastern Nebraska, but it is quite common in the western part of the state.
349. Aquila chrysœtos (Linn.). Golden Eagle. Resident; not common. Have seen it a number of times in East Nebraska, and a specimen killed near Peru, is in the State Normal laboratory. Aughey mentions seeing it twice on the Republican.
352. Haliœetus leucocephalus (Linn.). Bald Eagle. Resident. Mr. Kennedy says a pair nested for a number of years near Omaha. More common in Eastern Nebraska than the Golden Eagle.
355. Falco mexicanus (Schleg.). Prairie Falcon. Only occasionally seen in Nebraska, (Aughey). Collected by Baird at Bridger's Pass, in August, and at Ft. Berthold in September, 1856.
356. Falco peregrinus anatum (Bonap.). Duck Hawk. Resident; not common.
357. Falco columbarius (Linn.). Pigeon Hawk. Aughey says, "Abundant all over the state."
358. Falco richardsonii (Ridgw.). Richardson's Merlin. Rather common in Nebraska. Breeds here. (Aughey).
360. Falco sparverius (Linn.). American Sparrow Hawk. Resident; common.
364. Pandion haliœetus carolinensis (Gmel.). American Osprey. A specimen in the museum at Crete, reported by Prof. Swezey is the only specimen we know of collected in the state.
365. Strix pratincola (Bonap.). American Barn Owl. Aughey says, "Only occasionally found in Nebraska, but breeds here."
366. Asio wilsonianus (Less.). American Long-eared Owl. Aughey records this bird as very rare. It is quite common in Eastern Nebraska, but we have been unable to determine whether or not it is common in other parts of the state.
367. Asio accipitrinus (Pall.). Short-eared Owl. Common in Eastern Nebraska, is found all over the state, but according to Aughey, is most abundant along the Missouri bottoms.
368. Syrnium nebulosum (Forst.). Barred Owl. Not uncommon in Eastern Nebraska, and breeds here. A nest examined by Joseph Gillilan, of Peru, March 25, 1888, contained two eggs, Color, white; form, subspherical; size, 2.00 x 1.68.
372. Nyctala acadica (Gmel.). Saw-whet Owl. Prof. Swezey reports a specimen in the museum at Crete. Probably a rare winter sojourner.
373. Megascops asio (Linn.). Screech Owl. Resident; abundant in Eastern Nebraska. A nest examined May 12, 1888, was about forty feet from the ground, in the hollow of a maple tree. The nest contained but four eggs. Color white; form, subspherical; size 1.44 x 1.24.
375. Bubo virginianus (Gmel.). Great Horned Owl. Resident; common.
375a. Bubo virginianus subarcticus (Hoy). Western Horned Owl. Mr. Frank Neal shot a male, January, 1889, in the timber about six miles west of Peru.
376. Nyctea nyctea (Linn.). Snowy Owl. Winter visitant.
378. Speotyto cunicularia hypogœa (Bonap.). Burrowing Owl. Abundant in Middle and Western Nebraska.
382. Conurus carolinensis (Linn.). Carolina Paroquet. The only record we find of this bird is in "Birds of North America," by Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, 1856. Old settlers report is as quite common along the Missouri river, in the early settlement of the state.
387. Coccyzus americanus (Linn.). Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Common summer resident; arrive about the first of May.
388. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (Wils.). Black-billed Cuckoo. Summer resident, but much more rare than the Yellow-billed Cuckoo.
390. Ceryle alcyon (Linn.). Belted Kingfisher. Common summer resident. Last year it arrived here about the first of April, but its time of arrival and time of leaving varies with the season.